There are various types of PTZ surveillance cameras, ranging from slow-moving small bullet or dome versions to high-speed domes that rotate at up to 400 degrees per second.
The optical zoom of an IP PTZ camera refers to the range over which its lens can be zoomed, usually expressed as a combination of optical and digital zoom ratios. Different IP PTZ cameras may have different zoom ratios, whether it's 3x or 40x, depending on the application and budget. High-speed domes have magnification ratios of 25x or 30x. For identification, a 30x optical zoom is typically needed (to recognize facial features and details, read license plates and tags). A high-quality lens with a 30x zoom, of course, is also reflected in the price. You're best off in the middle ground here.
Everything from 2MP (FullHD) to 8MP (4K) is included. If I have already decided to use a PTZ dome with 30x magnification, then 2MP (FullHD) should be sufficient in fact. Of course, an 8MP image looks more impressive and can bring out the smallest details, but it also requires four times the processing power in terms of video data processing, rendering, and storage.
High-speed dome cameras and most commonly used IP PTZ cameras are dome camera versions. Smaller PTZ cameras are mainly dome versions, but there are also many bullet versions here. Especially in outdoor areas, these bullet versions have shown their worth since they do not have to fight the formidable light reflections that the dome cameras have to deal with in sunlight.
For discrete monitoring, the Mini version is preferred. In professional installation, this only plays a secondary role because the height of dome installation is at least 4 to 5 meters and visibility is required.
Video signal transmission in professional field applications is usually done via wired technologies such as coaxial cables or network cables. This form of transmission is very secure and reliable, making it a prerequisite for industrial applications. PTZ outdoor surveillance cameras can be operated remotely as analog or IP cameras. By default, distances of up to 300 meters (for high-quality cables up to a maximum of 800 meters) and rotating outdoor IP cameras with a maximum distance of 100 meters should be considered for transmission via coaxial cable, so that secure transmission should not exceed 80 meters. So-called LAN extenders, into which they can be inserted, allow distances of up to 2.5Km.
A very interesting feature of the IP PTZ cameras is automatic tracking: This means that the object is tracked automatically. The camera is in its original position, and the lens is zoomed out. When a person or vehicle is detected, the camera will track the object and zoom in according to the object's speed. If the tracked object leaves the detection range of the PTZ camera, the dome camera will return to its original position.